Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) is a federal state in Central Europe. It has been composed of 16 countries since 1990 and is constituted as a free-democratic and social constitutional state. The Federal Republic of Germany is the most recent form of the German nation-state. Germany has 83 million inhabitants and, with an average of 232 inhabitants per km2, is one of the densely populated area states.
Germany is bordered by nine states, it has a share of the North Sea and Baltic Sea in the north as well as Lake Constance and the Alps in the south. It is located in the temperate climate zone and has sixteen national parks and over a hundred nature parks. The capital and most populous German city is Berlin. Other metropolises with more than one million inhabitants are Hamburg, Munich and Cologne, the largest conurbation is the Ruhr area, Frankfurt am Main is an important international financial centre. With 1. 57 children per woman (2018), Germany’s population has a comparatively low birth rate, which, however, increased slightly in the 2010s.